Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: For example, the Japanese language has multiple first-person pronouns see Japanese pronouns and each pronoun is associated with a different degree of politeness. In larger German cities a few “special cinemas” use subtitling instead of dubbing. This allows subtitlers to display subtitles on a usually translucent band for easier reading; however, this is rare, since most subtitles use an outline and shadow instead, in order to block a smaller portion of the picture. Many HDTVs allow the end—user to customize the captions, including the ability to remove the black band. Some bulletins may have a high incidence of truly live material, or insufficient access to video feeds and scripts may be provided to the captioning facility, making stenography unavoidable. This section gives self-sourcing popular culture examples without describing their significance in the context of the article.

Real-time translation subtitling usually involves an interpreter and a stenographer working concurrently, whereby the former quickly translates to the dialog while the latter types; this form of subtitling is rare. It is also common that television services in minority languages subtitle their programs in the dominant language as well. Part 3 — Closed Captioning — Flash Video”. The captions are used artistically; it is common to see the words appear one by one as they are spoken, in a multitude of fonts, colors, and sizes that capture the spirit of what is being said. Other bulletins may be pre-recorded just before going to air, making pre-prepared text preferable. Most of them are text-based and have the extension. National Association of the Deaf, p. In these countries, written text remains mostly uniform while regional dialects in the spoken form can be mutually unintelligible.

The process of translation requires a translator e.

There are still many more uncommon formats. As animated films are “dubbed” even in their original language subsceme ambient noise envlish effects are usually recorded on a separate sound track, dubbing a low quality production into a second language produces little or no noticeable effect on the viewing experience.

The two alternative methods englidh ‘translating’ films in a foreign language are dubbingin which other actors record over the voices of the original actors dubscene a different language, and lectoringa form of voice-over for fictional material where a narrator tells the audience what the actors are saying while their voices can be heard in the background. Most of them are text-based and have sutbitles extension. The NWPC concluded that the standard they accept is the comprehensive real-time method, which gives them access to the commentary in its entirety.


In the traditional subtitling countries, dubbing is generally regarded as something strange and unnatural and is only used for animated films and TV programs intended for pre-school children. The majority of these formats are proprietary to the vendors of subtitle insertion systems. With the advent of digital land broadcast TV, it has become common practice in Spain to provide optional audio and subtitle streams that allow watching dubbed programmes with the original audio and subtitles.

This section gives self-sourcing popular culture examples without describing their significance in the context of the article.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Usually requires installation of special software, unless national regulators mandate its distribution. Closed captioning is the American term for closed subtitles specifically intended for people who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Subtitle (captioning) – Wikipedia

It is not only the quickest and cheapest method of translating content, but is also usually preferred as it is possible for the audience to hear the original dialog and voices of the actors. Timed Text Working Group. SDH subtitles; English subtitles, helpful for viewers who may not be hearing impaired but whose first language may not be English although they are usually an exact transcript and not simplified ; and closed caption data that is decoded by the end-user’s closed caption decoder.

Some Blu-ray Discs, however, are said to carry a closed caption stream that only displays through standard-definition connections. Teletext subtitle language follows the original audio, except in multi-lingual countries where the broadcaster may provide subtitles in additional languages on other teletext pages.

Subtitle (captioning)

Part of a series on. The converter box will come with instructions on how to change the caption size, font, caption color, background color, and opacity.

SLS refers to the idea of subtitling in the same language as the audio. Files in this format have the extension.

Often in such cases, the translations are made separately, rather than the subtitles being a verbatim transcript of the dubbed scenes of the film. In dubbed live-action television or film, however, viewers are often distracted by the fact that the audio does not match the actors’ lip movements.


Other bulletins may be pre-recorded just before going to air, making pre-prepared text preferable. Especially in fansubsthe subtitle translator may translate both form and meaning. It refers to regular subtitles in the original language where important non-dialog information has been added, as well as speaker identification, which may be useful when the viewer cannot otherwise visually tell who is saying what. Countries which produce their own dubbings, but often use dubbed versions from another country whose language is sufficiently similar so that the local audience understands it easily French and Dutch for BelgiumCzech for Slovakiaand Russian for Belarus.

These DVDs often contain poorly worded subtitle tracks, possibly produced by machine translationwith humorous results. They must therefore develop techniques for keying homophones differently, and be unswayed by the pressures of delivering accurate product on immediate demand.

Google Translate [13]Microsoft Translator [14].

These markers are usually based on timecode if it is a work for electronic media e. Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen.

Depends on player and subtitle file format, but generally poor [ citation needed ]. Archived from the original on 2 November Consequently, they may enter the same phonetic stenographic codes for a variety of homophones, and fix up the spelling later. This is common with popular Latin American soap operas in Spanish. Therefore, subtitling offers a distinct advantage to aid comprehension. However, there are occasions when foreign dialogue is left unsubtitled and thus incomprehensible to most of the target audience.