Many natural polymers have already demonstrated effectiveness in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. In the field of drug delivery many efforts have been devoted, in the last decades, to the development of appropriate delivery systems that avoid or minimize side effects, while improving the therapeutic efficacy. Locust bean gum as superdisintegrant – Formulation and evaluation of nimesulide orodispersible tablets. Pressure cell assisted solution characterization of polysaccharides. Locust Bean Gum Origin and Processing LBG is extracted from the seeds of the carob tree Ceratonia siliqua , which is very abundant in the Mediterranean region although its localization also extends to different regions of North Africa, South America, and Asia. Stuck In Love In fact, although many efforts continue to elucidate the interaction, with some recent works providing new evidences, a wide debate is still open in the subject. Solution properties of the galactomannans extracted from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Cassia javanica:

Solid dispersions tested in vivo also demonstrated better therapeutic results as compared to unformulated lovastatin. Made Of Stone, The This non-additive behavior is termed synergism. Conformational role of xanthan in its interaction with locust bean gum. Lauroyldextran and crosslinked galactomannan as coating materials for site-specific drug delivery to the colon. Behind The Candelabra Res J Pharm Technol. A comparison of the rheological behaviour of crude and refined locust bean gum preparations during thermal processing.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Biopharmaceutical Applications of Locust Bean Gum Many natural polymers have already demonstrated effectiveness in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.

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Eur J Pharm Sci. In fact, although many efforts continue to elucidate the interaction, with some recent works providing new evidences, a zuro debate is still open in the subject. Ambikapathy Tamil version of Raanjhanaa 12A.

Several works describe the potential of LBG as a bioactive material. Some polysaccharides comprise monosaccharide derivatives in their structure, like the amino sugars D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine, as well as their derivatives N -acetylneuraminic acid and N -acetylmuramic acid, and simple sugar acids glucuronic and iduronic acids.

In some cases, polysaccharides are collectively named for zito sugar unit they contain, so glucose-based polysaccharides are called glucans, while mannose-based polysaccharides are mannans.

Several studies report the solubilization pattern of LBG. Solubility enhancement of lovastatin by modified locust bean gum using solid dispersion techniques. The application of natural polymers in pharmaceutical formulations is extremely varied, comprising the production of solid monolithic matrix systems, implants, films, beads, microparticles, nanoparticles, inhalable, and injectable systems, as well as viscous liquid and gel formulations.


The most effective synergies with other polysaccharides are described and the reported biopharmaceutical applications are explored and discussed. Kurakake M, Komaki T.

This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for kqml applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. New vesicle-loaded hydrogel system suitable for topical applications: Two galactomannans and scleroglucan as matrices for drug delivery: Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree Ceratonia siliqua.

Synergistic Interaction of Locust Bean Gum with Other Polysaccharides The study of synergistic effects between polysaccharides has a potential industrial interest, as many products involve the formulation of mixed polysaccharide systems. Investigation of equilibrium solubility of a carob galactomannan. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects. These zones permit, consequently, the formation of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds that reduce the hydration of the gum.

Furthermore, due to the high gelling ability and the fact that the formed gel is not assimilated by the gastrointestinal tract, ingestion causes a sensation of satiety resulting in decreased absorption of nutrients, thus rendering LBG adequate for inclusion in dietary products. Boule et Bill PG. These gyrating molecules collide with each other and with clusters of solvent molecules to produce solutions of high viscosity, a process that is reported to be dependent on the polymer molecular weight.

LBG exhibits a significant capacity to form synergistic interactions with other polysaccharides, mainly because of the numerous OH groups present in the molecule structure.

The combination of LBG with other polysaccharides is a frequent approach in the design of systems, in many cases benefiting from material synergies, as in the previous example.

It was shown that the destabilization of xanthan helical structure by deacetylation and heating facilitated the intermolecular binding between xanthan and LBG.

Barry J, Halsey G. A more recent work studied the possibility of modulating the gel mechanical properties varying the polymeric ratios and the temperature of reaction, the latter being known to affect xanthan chain conformation. It can also happen that adding a small amount of a non-gelling polymer to a gelling one induces a strengthening of the resulting gel or, even, some polymers that are individually non-gelling can yield gels upon mixing.


Solid dispersions of LBG and lovastatin were formulated to increase drug solubility. Tsai A, Peng B. Stand Up Guys Ofloxacin was first encapsulated in microspheres in order to mask its bitter taste.

Bauer A, Kesselhut A. Thursday 6 June This effect is attributed to the fact that mannose chains are relatively hydrophobic and galactose units more hydrophilic. Processing, properties and food applications – A review ; doi: Fikm rather different approach concerns the use of multiparticulate systems, namely microspheres.

Unfortunately, both articles are very scarce in details and discussion, and it was not possible to conclude on the more adequate formulation for diclofenac delivery and release. Locust bean gum LBG is a neutral polysaccharide composed of mannose and galactose units and, therefore, belongs to the category of fillm.

Hydrogels for biomedical kanl. The modulating layers enable controlling the rate of hydration of the matrix core, thereby restricting the surface area available for diffusion of the drug and at the same time controlling solvent penetration rate.

Preparation and release studies. Food polymers, gels and colloids.

The first studies on the polymeric interaction between LBG and k -carrageenan suggested that k -carrageenan helix interacted with unsubstituted regions of LBG,[ 67 ] but several contradictory studies were published after that. Rocks was the first to report the synergistic interaction between the two polysaccharides, observing the formation of a thermally reversible gel. X-Ray fibre-diffraction studies of synergistic, binary polysaccharide gels. This gelation process occurs when the polymeric chains of both substances establish a more specific interaction, leading to an increased capacity for water absorption, compared with the sum of the absorption of each substance separately.

Rheological study of xanthan and locust bean gum interaction in dilute solution. Open in a separate window.

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Galactomannans are plant reserve carbohydrates present in large quantities in the endosperm of the seeds of many leguminosae such as Ceratonia siliqua locust bean gumCyamopsis tetragonoloba guar gumand Caesalpinia spinosa tara gum. Like Someone In Love 12A. Synergy with k -carrageenan The gelation of k -carrageenan is preceded kamo a coil—helix transition followed by aggregation and network formation.